|Title||Synergism between smoking and vital exhaustion in the risk of ischemic stroke: evidence from the ARIC study.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2004|
|Authors||Schwartz SW, Carlucci C, Chambless LE, Rosamond WD|
|Date Published||2004 Jul|
|Keywords||Aged, Brain Ischemia, Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic, Fatigue, Female, Humans, Incidence, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Middle Aged, Probability, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Smoking, Stroke, Surveys and Questionnaires, United States|
PURPOSE: To examine the synergism between vital exhaustion and cigarette smoking in producing ischemic stroke. Vital exhaustion (VE), a state characterized by unusual fatigue, irritability, and feelings of demoralization, is measured by the Maastricht questionnaire (MQ), a 21-item inventory of symptoms.
METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study is an ongoing cohort study, initiated in 1987. The MQ was administered at the second follow-up visit (1990-1992), and participants were subsequently followed for an average of 6.27 years. Four US communities (Minneapolis, Minnesota; Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and Jackson, Mississippi). 13,066 participants aged 48 to 67 years at baseline (Visit 2) with no history of stroke. Validated hospitalized ischemic stroke.
RESULTS: During the follow-up period, there were 202 incident ischemic strokes. After multivariate adjustment, current smoking, and high VE were independent risk factors for incident stroke: (smoking vs. non-smoking HR=1.76, p
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of cigarette smoking and VE is synergistic in the production of stroke.
|Alternate Journal||Ann Epidemiol|
|Grant List||N01-HL-55015 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States |
N01-HL-55016 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HL-55018 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HL-55019 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HL-55020 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HL-55021 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HL-55022 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States