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Glycated hemoglobin and risk of hypertension in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

TitleGlycated hemoglobin and risk of hypertension in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsBower JK, Appel LJ, Matsushita K, Young HJ, Alonso A, Brancati FL
Secondary AuthorsSelvin E
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume35
Issue5
Pagination1031-7
Date Published2012 May
ISSN1935-5548
KeywordsAtherosclerosis, Diabetes Mellitus, Female, Glycated Hemoglobin A, Humans, Hypertension, Male, Middle Aged, Risk Factors, Stroke
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes and hypertension often co-occur and share risk factors. Hypertension is known to predict diabetes. However, hyperglycemia also may be independently associated with future development of hypertension. We investigated glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) as a predictor of incident hypertension.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 9,603 middle-aged participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study without hypertension at baseline. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated the association between HbA(1c) at baseline and incident hypertension by two definitions 1) self-reported hypertension during a maximum of 18 years of follow-up and 2) measured blood pressure or hypertension medication use at clinic visits for a maximum of 9 years of follow-up.

RESULTS: We observed 4,800 self-reported and 1,670 visit-based hypertension cases among those without diagnosed diabetes at baseline. Among those with diagnosed diabetes at baseline, we observed 377 self-reported and 119 visit-based hypertension cases. Higher baseline HbA(1c) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in subjects with and without diabetes. Compared with nondiabetic adults with HbA(1c)

CONCLUSIONS: We observed that individuals with elevated HbA(1c), even without a prior diabetes diagnosis, are at increased risk of hypertension. HbA(1c) is a known predictor of incident heart disease and stroke. Our results suggest that the association of HbA(1c) with cardiovascular risk may be partially mediated by the development of hypertension.

DOI10.2337/dc11-2248
Alternate JournalDiabetes Care
PubMed ID22432110
PubMed Central IDPMC3329825
Grant ListHHSN268201100012C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100009I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K01-DK-076595 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100010C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100008C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005G / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100008I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005C / / PHS HHS / United States
HHSN268201100007C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100009C / / PHS HHS / United States
HHSN268201100011I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100011C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
T32 HL007024 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R21-DK-080294 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100010C / / PHS HHS / United States
K01 DK076595 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100006C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100008C / / PHS HHS / United States
HHSN268201100012C / / PHS HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100007C / / PHS HHS / United States
HHSN268201100009C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100011C / / PHS HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100007I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R21 DK080294 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100006C / / PHS HHS / United States