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Olfactory function and neurocognitive outcomes in old age: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study.

TitleOlfactory function and neurocognitive outcomes in old age: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsPalta P, Chen H, Deal JA, Sharrett ARichey, Gross A, Knopman D, Griswold M, Heiss G
Secondary AuthorsMosley TH
JournalAlzheimers Dement
Volume14
Issue8
Pagination1015-1021
Date Published2018 08
ISSN1552-5279
KeywordsAged, Atherosclerosis, Cognition, Cognitive Dysfunction, Female, Humans, Male, Neuropsychological Tests, Olfaction Disorders, Prevalence, Prospective Studies, Smell, United States
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: We tested the hypothesis that poor sense of smell is associated with lower cognitive function and higher mild cognitive impairment (MCI) prevalence.

METHODS: Olfaction, measured by the Sniffin' Sticks test, was categorized as olfactory impairment (OI) (score ≤6) or no OI (score >6). MCI was adjudicated based on review of a neuropsychological examination. Linear regression estimated the mean difference in cognitive factor scores, and log-binomial regression quantified MCI prevalence among participants with versus without OI.

RESULTS: Participants with OI had lower mean factor scores (memory: -0.27 standard deviation [SD], 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.35 to -0.19; language: -0.24 SD, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.17; executive function/processing speed: -0.09 SD, 95% CI: -0.12 to -0.06; and general cognitive performance: -0.25 SD, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.20). OI was also associated with MCI (n = 204; prevalence ratio = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.78).

DISCUSSION: An impaired sense of smell may serve as a readily accessible early marker of neurodegeneration and improve upon the prevailing delayed diagnoses and underascertainment of MCI/dementia.

DOI10.1016/j.jalz.2018.02.019
Alternate JournalAlzheimers Dement
PubMed ID29605223
PubMed Central IDPMC6097922
Grant ListHHSN268201100012C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100009I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096812 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100010C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100008C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K01 AG050699 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100007C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100011C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096902 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100006C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
T32 HL007055 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700003I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K99 AG052830 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005G / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096917 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100008I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
Z01 ES101986 / ImNIH / Intramural NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100011I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
L30 AG057117 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700004I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096814 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K01 AG054693 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100009C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL070825 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100007I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096899 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R00 AG052830 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700002I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700005I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States