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Genetic Variants in SGLT1, Glucose Tolerance, and Cardiometabolic Risk.

TitleGenetic Variants in SGLT1, Glucose Tolerance, and Cardiometabolic Risk.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsSeidelmann SB, Feofanova E, Yu B, Franceschini N, Claggett B, Kuokkanen M, Puolijoki H, Ebeling T, Perola M, Salomaa V, Shah A, Coresh JJ, Selvin E, MacRae CA, Cheng S, Boerwinkle E
Secondary AuthorsSolomon SD
JournalJ Am Coll Cardiol
Volume72
Issue15
Pagination1763-1773
Date Published2018 10 09
ISSN1558-3597
KeywordsCardiovascular Diseases, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Genetic Variation, Glucose, Glucose Tolerance Test, Humans, Hyperglycemia, Intestinal Absorption, Loss of Function Mutation, Male, Mendelian Randomization Analysis, Middle Aged, Outcome Assessment, Health Care, Protective Factors, Risk Assessment, Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1, United States, Whole Exome Sequencing
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the SGLT1 (sodium/glucose co-transporter-1) gene result in a rare glucose/galactose malabsorption disorder and neonatal death if untreated. In the general population, variants related to intestinal glucose absorption remain uncharacterized.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to identify functional SGLT1 gene variants and characterize their clinical consequences.

METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants enrolled from 4 U.S. communities. The association of functional, nonsynonymous substitutions in SGLT1 with 2-h oral glucose tolerance test results was determined. Variants related to impaired glucose tolerance were studied, and Mendelian randomization analysis of cardiometabolic outcomes was performed.

RESULTS: Among 5,687 European-American subjects (mean age 54 ± 6 years; 47% male), those who carried a haplotype of 3 missense mutations (frequency of 6.7%)-Asn51Ser, Ala411Thr, and His615Gln-had lower 2-h glucose and odds of impaired glucose tolerance than noncarriers (β-coefficient: -8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -12.7 to -3.3; OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.86, respectively). The association of the haplotype with oral glucose tolerance test results was consistent in a replication sample of 2,791 African-American subjects (β = -16.3; 95% CI: -36.6 to 4.1; OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.91) and an external European-Finnish population sample of 6,784 subjects (β = -3.2; 95% CI: -6.4 to -0.02; OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.98). Using a Mendelian randomization approach in the index cohort, the estimated 25-year effect of a reduction of 20 mg/dl in 2-h glucose via SGLT1 inhibition would be reduced prevalent obesity (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.63), incident diabetes (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.81), heart failure (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.83), and death (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.90).

CONCLUSIONS: Functionally damaging missense variants in SGLT1 protect from diet-induced hyperglycemia in multiple populations. Reduced intestinal glucose uptake may protect from long-term cardiometabolic outcomes, providing support for therapies that target SGLT1 function to prevent and treat metabolic conditions.

DOI10.1016/j.jacc.2018.07.061
Alternate JournalJ Am Coll Cardiol
PubMed ID30286918
PubMed Central IDPMC6403489
Grant ListHHSN268201100012C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
T32 HL094301 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100010C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100008C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005G / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100008I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 DK089174 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100007C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100011I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100011C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL134168 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100006C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K24 DK106414 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL131532 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100007I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States