|Title||Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Millen AE, Nie J, Mares JA, Lutsey PL, Lamonte MJ, Meuer SM, Sahli MW, Andrews CA, Klein BEK|
|Secondary Authors||Klein R|
|Journal||Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci|
|Date Published||2019 04 01|
|Keywords||Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Atherosclerosis, Female, Humans, Incidence, Logistic Models, Macular Degeneration, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Prospective Studies, Retinal Drusen, Risk Factors, United States, Vitamin D|
Purpose: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations at visit 2 (1990-1992) and the 18-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) between visit 3 (1993-1995) and visit 5 (2011-2013).
Methods: This prospective analysis was conducted in a subset of participants (n = 1225) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. We evaluated the incidence of any, early, and late AMD from visit 3 to 5. The 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed in 2012-2013 by using stored serum from visit 2. Retinal fundus photographs taken at both visits were graded side by side to determine the incidence of AMD. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident AMD outcomes during 18 years of follow-up (1993-1995 to 2011-2013) by tertile of 25(OH)D adjusted for age, race, and smoking status. P for linear trend was estimated by using continuous 25(OH)D concentrations. Sensitivity analyses applied inverse probability weights to account for selection to have eye photographs, death, and loss to follow-up.
Results: There was a decreased odds of any incident AMD (n = 139) and large, soft drusen (n = 80) in 25(OH)D tertile 3 versus 1, with OR (95% CI) = 0.57 (0.36-0.90), P trend = 0.11 and with 0.52 (0.28-0.93), P trend = 0.18, respectively. Applying sampling weights attenuated these results to 0.66 (0.38-1.16), P trend = 0.32 (any incident AMD) and 0.54 (0.27-1.09), P trend = 0.36 (large, soft drusen), respectively, suggesting these associations may be biased by loss to follow-up and sampling for retinal photographs at visit 5. No statistically significant results were observed with pigmentary abnormalities (n = 46) or incident late AMD (n = 26).
Conclusions: High 25(OH)D concentrations, approximately >70 nM, may be associated with decreased odds of incident early AMD.
|Alternate Journal||Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC6892376|
|Grant List||R01 HL086694 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States |
R01 HL103706 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700001I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700004I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG041776 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
UL1 RR025005 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096902 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HG004402 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700005I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096899 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700003I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL087641 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096814 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096917 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700002I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL096812 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States