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Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians.

TitleConsumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsFretts AM, Follis JL, Nettleton JA, Lemaitre RN, Ngwa JS, Wojczynski MK, Kalafati IPanagiota, Varga TV, Frazier-Wood AC, Houston DK, Lahti J, Ericson U, van den Hooven EH, Mikkilä V, de Jong JCKiefte-, Mozaffarian D, Rice K, Renstrom F, North KE, McKeown NM, Feitosa MF, Kanoni S, Smith CE, Garcia ME, Tiainen A-M, Sonestedt E, Manichaikul A, van Rooij FJA, Dimitriou M, Raitakari O, Pankow JS, Djoussé L, Province MA, Hu FB, Lai C-Q, Keller MF, Perälä M-M, Rotter JI, Hofman A, Graff M, Kähönen M, Mukamal K, Johansson I, Ordovas JM, Liu Y, Männisto S, Uitterlinden AG, Deloukas P, Seppälä I, Psaty BM, L Cupples A, Borecki IB, Franks PW, Arnett DK, Nalls MA, Eriksson JG, Orho-Melander M, Franco OH, Lehtimäki T, Dedoussis GV, Meigs JB
Secondary AuthorsSiscovick DS
JournalAm J Clin Nutr
Volume102
Issue5
Pagination1266-78
Date Published2015 Nov
ISSN1938-3207
KeywordsBlood Glucose, Cohort Studies, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Hyperglycemia, Hyperinsulinism, Insulin, Insulin Resistance, Insulin Secretion, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Meat, Meat Products, Middle Aged, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Risk Factors
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus.

DESIGN: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations.

RESULTS: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049-ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063-ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic loci known to influence fasting glucose or insulin resistance.

CONCLUSION: The association of higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations with meat consumption was not modified by an index of glucose- and insulin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Six of the participating studies are registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT0000513 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00149435 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005136 (Family Heart Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study), NCT00083369 (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network), and NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

DOI10.3945/ajcn.114.101238
Alternate JournalAm J Clin Nutr
PubMed ID26354543
PubMed Central IDPMC4625584
Grant ListR01 DK078616 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL120393 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL091357 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
P30 DK079626 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
T32HL007902 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
UL1 TR000124 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL105756 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
P30 DK063491 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
U01 HL072524 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01HL105756 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K24 DK080140 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
U01 DK078616 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
5KL2TR000421-08 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
UL1 TR002319 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
KL2 TR000421 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL117078 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K08 HL112845 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States