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Advances in precision oral health.

TitleAdvances in precision oral health.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsBeck JD, Philips K, Moss K, Divaris K, Morelli T
Secondary AuthorsOffenbacher S
JournalPeriodontol 2000
Volume82
Issue1
Pagination268-285
Date Published2020 02
ISSN1600-0757
KeywordsHumans, Oral Health, Patient Care Planning, Risk Factors, Tooth Loss
Abstract

The concept of precision dentistry as it relates to precision medicine is relatively new to the field of oral health. Precision dentistry is a contemporary, multifaceted, data-driven approach to oral health care that uses individual characteristics to stratify similar patients into phenotypic groups. The objective is to provide clinicians with the information that will allow them to improve treatment planning and a patient's response to treatment. Providers that use a precision oral health approach would move away from using an "average treatment" for all patients with a particular diagnosis and move toward more specific treatments for patients within each diagnostic subgroup. Precision dentistry requires a method or a model that places each individual in a subgroup where each member is the same as every other member in relation to the disease of interest. Precision dentistry is a paradigm shift that requires a new way of thinking about diagnostic categories. This approach uses patients' risk factor data (including, but not limited to, genetic, environmental, and health behavioral), rather than expert opinion or clinical presentation alone, to redefine traditional categories of health and disease. We review aspects of current efforts to allow precision dentistry to be realized and focus on one of the major innovations that may help precision dentistry to be practiced by periodontists, the World Workshop Model. Another approach is the Periodontal Profile Class system. These two approaches represent examples of supervised and unsupervised learning systems, respectively. This review compares and contrasts these two learning systems for their ability to classify patients into homogeneous disease and risk groups, as well as their feasibility at achieving the objective of enabling precision dentistry. We conclude that: (a) the World Workshop Model concept of stages and grades works as expected, in that periodontal status appears to be more serious in each successive stage. In addition, the seriousness and the complexity of the disease are greater as the grade increases within each stage. Stages and grades are important for precision dentistry because they consider the risk of future disease and the prognosis, and enable practitioners to use more signs, symptoms, and other associated factors when placing a patient in a diagnostic category; (b) the assignment of stages and grades using unsupervised learning systems is superior to using supervised learning systems for the prediction of 10-year tooth loss and 3-year attachment loss progression. In addition, the unsupervised learning approach (Periodontal Profile Class stages) results in stronger associations between the periodontal phenotypes and systemic diseases and conditions (prevalent diabetes, C-reactive protein, and incident stroke). This probably occurs because an unsupervised learning model produces more data-driven, mutually exclusive, homogeneous groups than a supervised learning model.

DOI10.1111/prd.12314
Alternate JournalPeriodontol 2000
PubMed ID31850630
Grant ListR01-DE021418 / DE / NIDCR NIH HHS / United States
R01-DE021986 / DE / NIDCR NIH HHS / United States
U01-DE025046 / DE / NIDCR NIH HHS / United States
R01-DE023836 / DE / NIDCR NIH HHS / United States
UL1-TR001111 / NH / NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100005C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100006C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100007C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100008C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100009C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100010C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100011C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100012C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States