The Association of Dietary Choline and Betaine With the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

TitleThe Association of Dietary Choline and Betaine With the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsDibaba DT, Johnson KC, Kucharska-Newton AMaria, Meyer K, Zeisel SH
Secondary AuthorsBidulescu A
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume43
Issue11
Pagination2840-2846
Date Published2020 Nov
ISSN1935-5548
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between dietary intake of choline and betaine and the risk of type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Among 13,440 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants, the prospective longitudinal association between dietary choline and betaine intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes was assessed using interval-censored Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models adjusted for baseline potential confounding variables.

RESULTS: Among 13,440 participants (55% women, mean age 54 [SD 7.4] years), 1,396 developed incident type 2 diabetes during median follow-up of 9 years from 1987 to 1998. There was no statistically significant association between every 1-SD increase in dietary choline and risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01 [95% CI 0.87, 1.16]) nor between dietary betaine intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes (HR 1.01 [0.94, 1.10]). Those in the highest quartile of dietary choline intake did not have a statistically significant higher risk of type 2 diabetes than those in the lowest choline quartile (HR 1.09 [0.84, 1.42]); similarly, dietary betaine intake was not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes comparing the highest quartile to the lowest (HR 1.06 [0.87, 1.29]). Among women, there was a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, comparing the highest to lowest dietary choline quartile (HR 1.54 [1.06, 2.25]), while in men, the association was null (HR 0.82 [0.57, 1.17]). Nevertheless, there was a nonsignificant interaction between high choline intake and sex on the risk of type 2 diabetes ( = 0.07). The results from logistic regression were similar.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall and among male participants, dietary choline or betaine intakes were not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Among female participants, there was a trend for a modestly higher risk of type 2 diabetes among those with the highest as compared with the lowest quartile of dietary choline intake. Our study should inform clinical trials on dietary choline and betaine supplementation in relationship with the risk of type 2 diabetes.

DOI10.2337/dc20-0733
Alternate JournalDiabetes Care
PubMed ID32900787
PubMed Central IDPMC7576425
Grant ListN01HC55020 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC55018 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC55022 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC55015 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC55016 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
P30 DK056350 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
N01HC55021 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
T32 HL007055 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 DK055865 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
R01 DK089174 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
T32 DK007686 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
N01HC55019 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States