Periodontal disease, undiagnosed diabetes, and body mass index: Implications for diabetes screening by dentists.

TitlePeriodontal disease, undiagnosed diabetes, and body mass index: Implications for diabetes screening by dentists.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsPhilips KH, Zhang S, Moss K, Ciarrocca K, Beck JD
JournalJ Am Dent Assoc
Volume152
Issue1
Pagination25-35
Date Published2021 Jan
ISSN1943-4723
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease and diabetes are widespread comorbid conditions that are detrimental to oral and overall health. Dentists' performing chairside screenings for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) can be beneficial to both patients and providers. The authors determined UDM rates in a population-based study and whether UDM and periodontal disease were independently associated.

METHODS: Data from 7,343 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study visit 4 were used to determine rates of UDM by periodontal status, edentulism, and body mass index. The authors used a χ test or analysis of variance, along with a 2-stage logistic regression model, to determine relationships with UDM. UDM was defined as no self-reported diabetes and blood glucose levels (fasting glucose ≥ 126 milligrams/deciliter or nonfasting glucose > 200 mg/dL). Periodontal disease was defined using the Periodontal Profile Classes system adapted to stages and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American Academy of Periodontology index.

RESULTS: UDM rates overall were 5.6%. The highest rates occurred in patients who were obese and edentulous (12.6%) and obese and had severe periodontal disease (12.2%). Significant associations were found for UDM and severe periodontal disease (Periodontal Profile Classes system stage IV) (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 2.88). Edentulism was significantly associated with UDM in the Periodontal Profile Classes system model (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.27 to 2.75) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American Academy of Periodontology index (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 2.67). Hyperglycemia was found in participants of all body mass index categories.

CONCLUSIONS: UDM is significantly associated with obesity, edentulism, and periodontitis. These characteristics could help dentists identify patients at higher risk of developing DM. Patients without these characteristics still have UDM, so dentists performing chairside diabetes screening for all patients would yield additional benefit.

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dental offices are a major point of contact within the US health care system. Diabetes screening in this setting can provide important health information with direct relevance to patient care.

DOI10.1016/j.adaj.2020.09.002
Alternate JournalJ Am Dent Assoc
PubMed ID33256949