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High Burden of Subclinical and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adults with Metabolically Healthy Obesity: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

TitleHigh Burden of Subclinical and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adults with Metabolically Healthy Obesity: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsCommodore-Mensah Y, Lazo M, Tang O, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Ndumele CE, Nambi V, Wang D, Ballantyne C, Selvin E
JournalDiabetes Care
Date Published2021 May 05
ISSN1935-5548
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: It is controversial whether adults who are obese but "metabolically healthy" have cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk comparable with that of normal-weight adults. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), a biomarker of myocardial damage, is useful in characterizing subclinical CVD. We categorized obesity phenotypes and studied their associations with subclinical and clinical CVD and CVD subtypes, including heart failure (HF).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional and prospective analyses of 9,477 adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We used the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and BMI to define obesity phenotypes as follows: metabolically healthy normal weight, metabolically healthy overweight, metabolically healthy obese, metabolically unhealthy normal weight, metabolically unhealthy overweight, and metabolically unhealthy obese.

RESULTS: At baseline (1990-1992), mean age was 56 years, 56% were female, 23% were Black, and 25% had detectable hs-cTnT (≥6 ng/L). Over a median of 17 years of follow-up, there were 2,603 clinical CVD events. Those with the metabolically healthy obese (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.15-1.67), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.30-1.76), metabolically unhealthy overweight (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.41-1.82), and metabolically unhealthy obese (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.88-2.44) phenotypes had higher CVD risks in comparison with metabolically healthy normal weight. Detectable hs-cTnT (≥6 ng/L) was associated with higher CVD risk, even among metabolically healthy normal-weight adults. Metabolically healthy obese adults had higher HF risk (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.30-2.09) in comparison with metabolically healthy normal weight.

CONCLUSIONS: The metabolically healthy obese phenotype was associated with excess burden of clinical CVD, primarily driven by an excess risk of HF. hs-cTnT was useful in stratifying CVD risk across all obesity phenotypes, even among obese individuals who appear otherwise metabolically healthy.

DOI10.2337/dc20-2227
Alternate JournalDiabetes Care
PubMed ID33952606
PubMed Central IDPMC8323178
Grant ListK24 HL152440 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 DK089174 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700002C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700001I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700004I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
F30 DK120160 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700004C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL134320 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700003I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
KL2 TR001077 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700005C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700001C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700003C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700002I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700005I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States