|Title||Does Sex Modify an Association of Electrophysiological Substrate with Sudden Cardiac Death? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Howell SJ, German D, Bender A, Phan F, Mukundan SV, Perez-Alday EA, Rogovoy NM, Haq KT, Yang K, Wirth A, Jensen K, Tereshchenko LG|
|Journal||Cardiovasc Digit Health J|
|Date Published||2020 Sep-Oct|
Background—: Sex is a well-recognized risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD). We hypothesized that sex modifies the association of electrophysiological (EP) substrate with SCD.
Methods—: Participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study with analyzable ECGs (n=14,725; age, 54.2±5.8 yrs; 55% female, 74% white) were included. EP substrate was characterized by heart rate, QRS, QTc, Cornell voltage, spatial ventricular gradient (SVG), and sum absolute QRST integral (SAI QRST) ECG metrics. Two competing outcomes were adjudicated SCD and nonSCD. Interaction of ECG metrics with sex was studied in Cox proportional hazards and Fine-Gray competing risk models. Model 1 was adjusted for prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors. Time-updated model 2 was additionally adjusted for incident non-fatal CVD. Relative hazard ratio (RHR) and relative sub-hazard ratio (RSHR) with a 95% confidence interval for SCD and nonSCD risk for women relative to men was calculated. Model 1 was adjusted for prevalent CVD and risk factors. Time-updated model 2 was additionally adjusted for incident non-fatal CVD.
Results—: Over a median follow-up of 24.4 years, there were 530 SCDs (incidence 1.72 (1.58-1.88)/1000 person-years). Women as compared to men experienced a greater risk of SCD associated with Cornell voltage (RHR 1.18(1.06-1.32); P=0.003), SAI QRST (RHR 1.16(1.04-1.30); P=0.007), and SVG magnitude (RHR 1.24(1.05-1.45); P=0.009), independently from incident CVD.
Conclusion—: In women, the global EP substrate is associated with up to 24% greater risk of SCD than in men, suggesting differences in underlying mechanisms and the need for sex-specific SCD risk stratification.
|Alternate Journal||Cardiovasc Digit Health J|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC8301262|
|Grant List||R01 HL118277 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States |
R56 HL118277 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States