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Racial Differences in Trends and Prognosis of Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Surveillance Study.

TitleRacial Differences in Trends and Prognosis of Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy for Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Surveillance Study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsMathews L, Ding N, Sang Y, Loehr LR, Shin J-I, Punjabi NM, Bertoni AG, Crews DC, Rosamond WD, Coresh J, Ndumele CE, Matsushita K, Chang PP
JournalJ Racial Ethn Health Disparities
Date Published2022 Jan 10
ISSN2196-8837
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have not been fully documented in a community setting.

METHODS: In the ARIC Surveillance Study (2005-2014), we examined racial differences in GDMT at discharge, its temporal trends, and the prognostic impact among individuals with hospitalized HFrEF, using weighted regression models to account for sampling design. Optimal GDMT was defined as beta blockers (BB), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) and ACE inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). Acceptable GDMT included either one of BB, MRA, ACEI/ARB or hydralazine plus nitrates (H-N).

RESULTS: Of 16,455 (unweighted n = 3,669) HFrEF cases, 47% were Black. Only ~ 10% were discharged with optimal GDMT with higher proportion in Black than White individuals (11.1% vs. 8.6%, p < 0.001). BB use was > 80% in both racial groups while Black individuals were more likely to receive ACEI/ARB (62.0% vs. 54.6%) and MRA (18.0% vs. 13.8%) than Whites, with a similar pattern for H-N (21.8% vs. 10.1%). There was a trend of decreasing use of optimal GDMT in both groups, with significant decline of ACEI/ARB use in Whites (- 2.8% p < 0.01) but increasing H-N use in both groups (+ 6.5% and + 9.2%, p < 0.01). Only ACEI/ARB and BB were associated with lower 1-year mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Optimal GDMT was prescribed in only ~ 10% of HFrEF patients at discharge but was more so in Black than White individuals. ACEI/ARB use declined in Whites while H-N use increased in both races. GDMT utilization, particularly ACEI/ARB, should be improved in Black and Whites individuals with HFrEF.

DOI10.1007/s40615-021-01202-5
Alternate JournalJ Racial Ethn Health Disparities
PubMed ID35001343
PubMed Central IDPMC9271140
Grant ListHHSN268201700002C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700001I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700004I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201100009C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700004C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700005C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700001C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700003C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700002I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700005I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201700003I / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HL146709 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States