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Association of fruit and vegetable color with incident diabetes and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in the United States Hispanic/Latino population.

TitleAssociation of fruit and vegetable color with incident diabetes and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in the United States Hispanic/Latino population.
Publication TypePublication
Year2022
AuthorsYu Z, Tamez M, Colon R, Rodriguez J, Hicks-Roof KK, Ford N, Mattei J, Sotres-Alvarez D, Van Horn L, Allison M, Talavera GA, Castañeda SF, Daviglus ML
JournalNutr Diabetes
Volume12
Issue1
Pagination18
Date Published2022 04 11
ISSN2044-4052
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, Aged, Biomarkers, Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus, Fruit, Hispanic or Latino, Humans, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, United States, Vegetables, Young Adult
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Color groups of fruits and vegetables (FV) are part of a healthy diet, but evidence for an association with cardiometabolic outcomes is inconsistent.OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between intake of FV of different colors with incident diabetes and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos.SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used data from 9206 adults ages 18-74 years who were free of diabetes at baseline (2008-2011) and had follow-up data at visit 2 (2014-2017) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a multicenter, prospective cohort study of self-identified Hispanics/Latinos. Dietary intake was assessed using two 24 h recalls at baseline. FV were categorized into five color groups: green, white, yellow/orange, red/purple, and uncategorized. Diabetes was defined based on laboratory measures and self-reported antihyperglycemic medication. We used survey logistic regression models to evaluate the association between FV color groups and incident diabetes and survey linear regression models to evaluate the association of FV color groups with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers at visit 2.RESULTS: During ~6 years of follow-up, 970 incident cases of diabetes were documented. The red/purple FV color group was the least consumed (0.21 servings/day), whereas white FV were the most consumed (0.92 servings/day). For each serving of total FV intake, body mass index (BMI) was lower by 0.24% (p = 0.03) and insulin by 0.69% (p = 0.03). For each serving of red/purple FV intake, HDL was 1.59% higher (p = 0.04). For each serving of white FV intake (with potato), post-OGTT was 0.83% lower (p = 0.04) and triglycerides 1.43% lower (p = 0.04). There was no association between FV intake and incident diabetes.CONCLUSIONS: Specific FV colors were associated with cardiometabolic benefits though the associations were of relatively small magnitudes. Dietary recommendations could consider varying colors of FV intake, especially white and red/purple color groups, for a healthy diet.

DOI10.1038/s41387-022-00197-0
Alternate JournalNutr Diabetes
PubMed ID35411032
PubMed Central IDPMC9001729
Grant ListN01HC65236 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65235 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65234 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65233 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65237 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
T32 HL098048 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
MS#: 
0796
Manuscript Lead/Corresponding Author Affiliation: 
Affiliated Investigator - Not at HCHS/SOL site
ECI: 
Manuscript Status: 
Published