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Hearing Sensitivity, Cardiovascular Risk, and Neurocognitive Function: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

TitleHearing Sensitivity, Cardiovascular Risk, and Neurocognitive Function: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
Publication TypePublication
Year2021
AuthorsStickel AM, Tarraf W, Bainbridge KE, Viviano RP, Daviglus M, Dhar S, Gonzalez F, Zeng D, González HM
JournalJAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
Volume147
Issue4
Pagination377-387
Date Published2021 04 01
ISSN2168-619X
KeywordsAged, Cognitive Dysfunction, Cohort Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Hearing Loss, Hearing Tests, Heart Disease Risk Factors, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Hyperglycemia, Male, Middle Aged, Neuropsychological Tests, United States
Abstract

Importance: Both cardiovascular disease risk and hearing impairment are associated with cognitive dysfunction. However, the combined influence of the 2 risk factors on cognition is not well characterized.Objective: To examine associations between hearing impairment, cardiovascular disease risk, and cognitive function.Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, prospective cohort, multisite cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected between 2008 and 2011 as part of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos included 9623 Hispanic or Latino adults aged 45 to 74 years in New York, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego.Exposures: Hearing impairment of at least mild severity was defined as the pure tone average of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz greater than 25 dB hearing level (dB HL) in the better ear. Our measure of cardiovascular disease risk was a latent class variable derived from body mass index, ankle-brachial index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk score.Main Outcomes and Measures: Results on Brief-Spanish English Verbal Learning Test (episodic learning and memory), and Word Fluency (verbal fluency), and Digit Symbol Subtest (processing speed/executive functioning), and a cognitive composite of the mentioned tests (overall cognition).Results: Participants (N = 9180) were 54.4% female and age 56.5 years on average. Hearing impairment was associated with poorer performance on all cognitive measures (global cognition: unstandardized β, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.07). Cardiovascular grouping (healthy, typical, high cardiovascular disease risk, and hyperglycemia) did not attenuate the associations between hearing impairment and cognition (global cognition: unstandardized β, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.15 to -0.06). However, cardiovascular grouping interacted with hearing impairment such that hyperglycemia in the context of hearing impairment exacerbated poor performance on learning and memory tasks (F3 = 3.70 and F3 = 2.92, respectively).Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that hearing impairment increases the likelihood that individuals with excessively high glucose perform poorly on learning and memory tasks. Further research is needed to specify the mechanisms by which cardiovascular disease risk and hearing impairment are collectively associated with cognition.

DOI10.1001/jamaoto.2020.4835
Alternate JournalJAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PubMed ID33331854
PubMed Central IDPMC7747041
Grant ListR01 AG048642 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
RF1 AG054548 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
RF1 AG061022 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG062429 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG059299 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65233 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65234 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65235 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65236 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65237 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
MS#: 
0605
Manuscript Lead/Corresponding Author Affiliation: 
Affiliated Investigator - Not at HCHS/SOL site
ECI: 
Yes
Manuscript Status: 
Published