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Higher Neighborhood Population Density Is Associated with Lower Potassium Intake in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

TitleHigher Neighborhood Population Density Is Associated with Lower Potassium Intake in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
Publication TypePublication
Year2021
AuthorsHanna DB, Hua S, Gonzalez F, Kershaw KN, Rundle AG, Van Horn LV, Wylie-Rosett J, Gellman MD, Lovasi GS, Kaplan RC, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Shaw PA
JournalInt J Environ Res Public Health
Volume18
Issue20
Date Published2021 10 13
ISSN1660-4601
KeywordsFemale, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Male, Population Density, potassium, Residence Characteristics, Risk Factors, Self Report, United States
Abstract

Current U.S. dietary guidelines recommend a daily potassium intake of 3400 mg/day for men and 2600 mg/day for women. Sub-optimal access to nutrient-rich foods may limit potassium intake and increase cardiometabolic risk. We examined the association of neighborhood characteristics related to food availability with potassium intake in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). 13,835 participants completed a 24-h dietary recall assessment and had complete covariates. Self-reported potassium intake was calibrated with an objective 24-h urinary potassium biomarker, using equations developed in the SOL Nutrition & Physical Activity Assessment Study (SOLNAS, = 440). Neighborhood population density, median household income, Hispanic/Latino diversity, and a retail food environment index by census tract were obtained. Linear regression assessed associations with 24-h potassium intake, adjusting for individual-level and neighborhood confounders. Mean 24-h potassium was 2629 mg/day based on the SOLNAS biomarker and 2702 mg/day using multiple imputation and HCHS/SOL biomarker calibration. Compared with the lowest quartile of neighborhood population density, living in the highest quartile was associated with a 26% lower potassium intake in SOLNAS (adjusted fold-change 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.94) and a 39% lower intake in HCHS/SOL (adjusted fold-change 0.61 95% CI 0.45-0.84). Results were only partially explained by the retail food environment. The mechanisms by which population density affects potassium intake should be further studied.

DOI10.3390/ijerph182010716
Alternate JournalInt J Environ Res Public Health
PubMed ID34682466
PubMed Central IDPMC8535329
Grant ListK01-HL-137557 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01-HL-095856 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HC65233 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HC65234 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HC65235 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HC65236 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01-HC65237 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
MS#: 
0174
ECI: 
Yes
Manuscript Status: 
Published