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Social and built neighborhood environments and blood pressure 6 years later: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos and the SOL CASAS ancillary study.

TitleSocial and built neighborhood environments and blood pressure 6 years later: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos and the SOL CASAS ancillary study.
Publication TypePublication
Year2022
AuthorsSavin KL, Roesch SC, Oren E, Carlson JA, Allison MA, Sotres-Alvarez D, Sallis JF, Jankowska MM, Talavera GA, Rodriguez TM, Chambers EC, Daviglus M, Perreira KM, Llabre MM, Gallo LC
JournalSoc Sci Med
Volume292
Pagination114496
Date Published2022 01
ISSN1873-5347
Keywordsblood pressure, Cross-Sectional Studies, Hispanic or Latino, Humans, Public Health, Residence Characteristics, Risk Factors
Abstract

Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation can increase risk for higher blood pressure or hypertension, while greater neighborhood safety and walkability may protect against hypertension. Large-scale prospective research, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, is lacking. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between neighborhood environments and blood pressure and hypertension among 3851 Hispanic/Latinos enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos San Diego, CA cohort. Addresses from Visit 1 (2008-2011) were geocoded and neighborhood characteristics were determined as part of the SOL CASAS ancillary study. Home addresses were geocoded and home areas created using 800 m circular radial buffers. Neighborhood indices socioeconomic deprivation, residential stability, and social disorder were created using Census and other publicly available data. Walkability was computed as density of intersections, retail spaces, and residences. Greenness was measured via satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Visit 1 and Visit 2 (2014-2017) clinical outcomes included systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, as well as prevalent and 6-year incident hypertension, defined as SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive medication use. Complex survey regression models adjusted for covariates revealed cross-sectional associations between greater walkability and lower SBP (B = -0.05; 95% CI: -0.09, -0.003). In prospective analyses, greater neighborhood social disorder was related to increasing SBP (B = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.09) and DBP (B = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.12) over time. Greater socioeconomic deprivation (OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.04) and greater social disorder (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.54) were associated with higher odds of incident hypertension. All other associations were not significant. Beyond individual-level characteristics, greater neighborhood social disorder and socioeconomic deprivation were related to adverse changes in blood pressure over 6 years among Hispanics/Latinos. Neighborhood social environment may help identify, or be an area for future intervention for, cardiovascular risk among Hispanics/Latinos.

DOI10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114496
Alternate JournalSoc Sci Med
PubMed ID34774366
PubMed Central IDPMC8748411
Grant ListHHSN268201300005C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201300004C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201300001C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 DK106209 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65236 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65235 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65234 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
T32 HL079891 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65237 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201300003C / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States
UL1 TR002550 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
P2C HD050924 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
P30 DK111022 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65233 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
MS#: 
1014
Manuscript Lead/Corresponding Author Affiliation: 
Field Center: San Diego (San Diego State University)
ECI: 
Manuscript Affiliation: 
Field Center: San Diego (San Diego State University)
Manuscript Status: 
Published