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Sex-Specific Associations of Iron-Anemia Status With Hemoglobin A1C Levels Among Hispanics/Latinos Without Self-Reported Diabetes Mellitus: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

TitleSex-Specific Associations of Iron-Anemia Status With Hemoglobin A1C Levels Among Hispanics/Latinos Without Self-Reported Diabetes Mellitus: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
Publication TypePublication
Year2022
AuthorsEstrella ML, Pérez CM, Suárez E, Fuentes-Payán W, Thyagarajan B, Goldsmith JC, Daviglus ML, M Avilés-Santa L
JournalEndocr Pract
Volume28
Issue3
Pagination282-291
Date Published2022 Mar
ISSN1530-891X
KeywordsAnemia, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Female, Glycated Hemoglobin A, Hispanic or Latino, Humans, Iron, Male, Prevalence, Self Report, United States
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the sex-specific associations of mutually exclusive iron-anemia status categories with hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) levels among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without self-reported diabetes mellitus.METHODS: Baseline cross-sectional data (7247 women and 4904 men without self-reported diabetes mellitus) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos were analyzed. Per the American Diabetes Association's defined criteria, based on HbA1C levels, the participants were categorized as having normoglycemia, prediabetes, or probable diabetes mellitus. The iron-anemia status categories were as follows: no anemia and no iron deficiency (reference), iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and non-iron deficiency anemia (non-IDA). Survey multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the sex-specific associations of iron-anemia status with HbA1C levels after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors.RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of iron-anemia status categories differed by sex. Compared with those with no anemia and no iron deficiency and normoglycemia, women with IDA had higher odds of having prediabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.18; 95% CI, 1.64-2.89) and probable diabetes mellitus (OR, 3.59; 95% CI, 1.62-7.99) based on HbA1C levels; men with non-IDA had higher odds of having probable diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.13-7.78) based on HbA1C levels. All other associations did not reach statistical significance.CONCLUSION: Among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without self-reported diabetes mellitus, the age-standardized prevalence of iron deficiency, IDA, and non-IDA is high and varies by sex. Women with IDA had higher odds of having prediabetes and probable diabetes mellitus, defined based on HbA1C levels. Men with non-IDA had higher odds of having probable diabetes mellitus, defined based on HbA1C levels. Iron-anemia status should be considered while interpreting elevated HbA1C levels among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without self-reported diabetes mellitus.

DOI10.1016/j.eprac.2021.11.086
Alternate JournalEndocr Pract
PubMed ID34896297
PubMed Central IDPMC8901541
Grant ListN01HC65236 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65235 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65234 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65233 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65237 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
L60 MD015551 / MD / NIMHD NIH HHS / United States
MS#: 
0235
Manuscript Lead/Corresponding Author Affiliation: 
Field Center: Chicago (University of Illinois at Chicago)
ECI: 
Yes
Manuscript Status: 
Published