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Associations of sodium and potassium intake with chronic kidney disease in a prospective cohort study: findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, 2008-2017

TitleAssociations of sodium and potassium intake with chronic kidney disease in a prospective cohort study: findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, 2008-2017
Publication TypePublication
Year2022
AuthorsSwift SL, Drexler Y, Sotres-Alvarez D, Raij L, Llabre MM, Schneiderman N, Van Horn L, Lash JP, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Elfassy T
JournalBMC Nephrol
Volume23
Issue1
Pagination133
Date Published2022 04 06
ISSN1471-2369
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, Aged, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Hispanic or Latino, Humans, Middle Aged, potassium, Potassium, Dietary, Prospective Studies, Public Health, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Risk Factors, sodium, Young Adult
Abstract

BACKGROUND: According to dietary recommendations, reduction of sodium intake has potential to reduce Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) risk; however the role of dietary potassium and the sodium -to- potassium ratio in the development of CKD is unclear.

METHODS: We studied 9778 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) from four US urban communities. Participants were aged 18-74 yrs., free from CKD at baseline in 2008-2011 and re-examined between 2014 and - 2017. Dietary intake of sodium, potassium and the ratio of dietary sodium -to- potassium were measured from two baseline 24-h dietary recalls. Incident CKD was defined as: 1) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline of 1 unit per year and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m or 2) albumin to creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g at the follow-up visit. We used multivariable survey weighted Poisson regression to estimate adjusted incident rates of incident CKD.

RESULTS: At baseline, mean age was 41 years. Average follow up time was 6.2 years. From fully adjusted Poisson regression analyses, self-reported sodium intake was not associated with incident CKD. However, for each 500 mg decrement in potassium intake, there was an 11% increase risk of incident CKD (IRR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.24). Additionally, every 1 M ratio increment of sodium -to -potassium ratio was associated with a 21% increased risk of incident CKD (IRR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.45), p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that diets low in potassium and high in sodium are associated with increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease among healthy US Hispanic/Latino adults.

DOI10.1186/s12882-022-02754-2
Alternate JournalBMC Nephrol
PubMed ID35387601
PubMed Central IDPMC8988326
Grant ListN01 HC065233 / HC / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01 HC065234 / HC / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01 HC065235 / HC / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01 HC065236 / HC / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01 HC065237 / HC / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K01 MD014158 / MD / NIMHD NIH HHS / United States
MS#: 
0969
Manuscript Lead/Corresponding Author Affiliation: 
Field Center: Miami (University of Miami)
ECI: 
Manuscript Status: 
Published