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Association of census-tract level gentrification and income inequality with 6-year incidence of metabolic syndrome in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, an epidemiologic cohort study.

TitleAssociation of census-tract level gentrification and income inequality with 6-year incidence of metabolic syndrome in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, an epidemiologic cohort study.
Publication TypePublication
Year2023
AuthorsPichardo CM, Chambers EC, Sanchez-Johnsen LAP, Pichardo MS, Gallo L, Talavera GA, Pirzada A, Roy A, Castañeda SF, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Perreira KM, Teng Y, Rodriguez CB, Allison M, Carlson JA, Daviglus ML, Plascak JJ
JournalSoc Sci Med
Volume336
Pagination116222
Date Published2023 Nov
ISSN1873-5347
KeywordsAdult, Censuses, Cohort Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Hispanic or Latino, Humans, Incidence, Income, Metabolic syndrome, Public Health, Residential Segregation, Risk Factors
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome varies by socio-demographic characteristics, with younger (18-29 years) and older (50-69 years) Hispanic/Latino having higher prevalence compared to other groups. While there is substantial research on neighborhood influences on cardiometabolic health, there are mixed findings regarding the effects of gentrification and few studies have included Hispanic/Latinos. The role of neighborhood income inequality on metabolic health remains poorly understood.OBJECTIVES: Examined associations of neighborhood gentrification and income inequality with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) using data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The HCHS/SOL is a community-based cohort of adults of Hispanic/Latinos (aged 18-74). Analyses included 6710 adults who did not meet criteria for MetsS at baseline (2008-2011) and completed the visit 2 examination (2014-2017). Poisson regressions estimated odds ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for neighborhood gentrification and change in income inequality with MetSyn incidence.MAIN OUTCOME AND EXPOSURE MEASURES: Gentrification was measured with an index that included changes (2000 to 2006-2010) in education, poverty, and income. Change in neighborhood income inequality (2005-2009 to 2012-2016) was measured using the Gini coefficient of income distribution. MetSyn was defined using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.RESULTS: Among 6647 Hispanic/Latino adults, 23% (N = 1530) had incident MetSyn. In models adjusted for socio-demographic, health insurance status, and neighborhood characteristics, gentrification (IRR, 1.00, 95%CI, 0.96-1.03) and income inequality change (IRR, 1.00, 95%CI, 0.99-1.00) were not associated with MetSyn at visit 2. There was no association between cross-sectional income inequality (2005-2009) and MetSyn at visit 2 (IRR, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.82-1.15).CONCLUSION: Neighborhood gentrification and income inequality change were not associated with incidence of MetSyn over 6 years among Hispanic/Latino adults. This study demonstrated that income-based residential changes alone may not be sufficient to explain neighborhood influences on health outcomes among this population.

DOI10.1016/j.socscimed.2023.116222
Alternate JournalSoc Sci Med
PubMed ID37776783
PubMed Central IDPMC11185427
Grant ListHHSN268201000031C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65236 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65235 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65237 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65234 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN261201300004I / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
HHSN268201000021C / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
P30 DK092949 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
HHSN261201300005I / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
MS#: 
1080
Manuscript Lead/Corresponding Author Affiliation: 
Field Center: Chicago (University of Illinois at Chicago)
ECI: 
Manuscript Affiliation: 
Field Center: Chicago (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Manuscript Status: 
Published