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General or Central Obesity and Mortality Among US Hispanic and Latino Adults

TitleGeneral or Central Obesity and Mortality Among US Hispanic and Latino Adults
Publication TypePublication
AuthorsZhang Y, Chen G-C, Sotres-Alvarez D, Perreira KM, Daviglus ML, Pirzada A, Gallo LC, Llabre MM, Cai J, Xue X, Isasi CR, Kaplan R, Qi Q
JournalJAMA Netw Open
Date Published2024 Jan 02
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, Aged, Cohort Studies, Female, Hispanic or Latino, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Obesity, Abdominal, Young Adult

IMPORTANCE: The Hispanic and Latino population is the second largest ethnic group in the US, but associations of obesity parameters with mortality in this population remain unclear.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of general and central obesity with mortality among US Hispanic and Latino adults.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is an ongoing, multicenter, population-based cohort study with a multistage probability sampling method performed in Hispanic and Latino adults aged 18 to 74 years with a baseline between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011. Active follow-up for this analyses extended from baseline through February 17, 2022. All analyses accounted for complex survey design (ie, stratification and clustering) and sampling weights to generate estimates representing the noninstitutionalized, 18- to 74-year-old Hispanic or Latino populations from selected communities.

EXPOSURES: Body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC), and waist to hip ratio (WHR).

MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Deaths were ascertained via death certificates, the National Death Index, and active follow-up.

RESULTS: Of 15 773 adults (mean [SE] age, 40.9 [0.3] years; 52.8% female), 686 deaths occurred during a median (IQR) follow-up of 10.0 (9.9-10.2) years. When adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and family history covariates, hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.55 (95% CI, 1.08-2.22) for a BMI of 35.0 or greater vs 18.5 to 24.9, 1.22 (95% CI, 0.92-1.64) for the highest vs lowest body fat percentage groups (defined according to sex-, age-, and Hispanic or Latino background-specific BMI distribution), 1.35 (95% CI, 0.98-1.85) for WC greater than 102 cm (men) or 88 cm (women) vs 94 cm (men) or 80 cm (women) or less, and 1.91 (95% CI, 1.28-2.86) for WHR of 0.90 (men) or 0.85 (women) or greater vs less than 0.90 (men) or 0.85 (women). Only WHR was associated with mortality with additional adjustment for major comorbidities (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.17-2.62). The association of WHR with mortality was stronger among women compared with men (P = .03 for interaction), and the association between BMI and mortality was stronger among men (P = .02 for interaction). The positive association between severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35.0) and mortality was observed only among adults with WHR of 0.90 (men) or 0.85 (women) or greater but not among those with WHR below 0.90 (men) or 0.85 (women) (P = .005 for interaction) who had greater hip circumference.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort of US Hispanic and Latino adults, WHR was independently associated with higher all-cause mortality regardless of BMI and prevalent comorbidities. These findings suggest that prioritizing clinical screening and intervention for WHR in this population may be an important public health strategy, with sex-specific strategies potentially being needed.

Alternate JournalJAMA Netw Open
PubMed ID38227314
PubMed Central IDPMC10792478
Manuscript Lead/Corresponding Author Affiliation: 
Field Center: Bronx (Einstein College of Medicine)
Manuscript Affiliation: 
Field Center: Bronx (Einstein College of Medicine)
Manuscript Status: