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Associations between sodium, potassium, and blood pressure: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a prospective cohort study.

TitleAssociations between sodium, potassium, and blood pressure: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a prospective cohort study.
Publication TypePublication
Year2024
AuthorsSwift SL, Sotres-Alvarez D, Raij L, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Schneiderman N, Llabre M, Hazzouri AZeki Al, Rundek T, Van Horn L, Daviglus M, Castaneda S, Youngblood M, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Elfassy T
JournalAm J Clin Nutr
Volume119
Issue5
Pagination1155-1163
Date Published2024 May
ISSN1938-3207
KeywordsAdult, blood pressure, Cohort Studies, Female, Hispanic or Latino, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, potassium, Potassium, Dietary, Prospective Studies, Sodium, Dietary, United States
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although the subject of numerous studies, the associations between dietary sodium, potassium, and the ratio of dietary sodium to potassium with blood pressure are not clear-cut. In addition, there is a paucity of research on these relationships in prospective cohort studies with representation from diverse Hispanic/Latino adults.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between dietary intake of sodium, potassium, and the ratio of dietary sodium to potassium and blood pressure in a diverse sample of Hispanics living in the United States.METHODS: This analysis included 11,429 Hispanic/Latino participants of the prospective cohort Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos recruited between 2008 and 2011 in visit 1 who participated in a follow-up visit in 2014-2017. Dietary sodium and potassium intakes were averaged from 2 interviewer-administered 24-h diet recalls collected at visit 1. At both visits, blood pressure was measured 3 times in a seated position and averaged. We assessed the relationship between dietary sodium, potassium, and the sodium-to-potassium ratio with changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure using survey-weighted multivariable-adjusted regression models.RESULTS: At visit 1, the mean age was 41 y, and the mean sodium intake was 3203 mg/d. Each 500 mg/d sodium increment in intake was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure (β: 0.35 [mmHg]; 95% confidence interval: 0.06, 0.63) and diastolic blood pressure (β: 0.45 [mmHg]; 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.82). Dietary potassium and the molar ratio of dietary sodium to potassium were not associated with changes in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.CONCLUSIONS: Among a large sample of diverse United States Hispanic/Latino adults, higher sodium intake was associated with small increases in systolic blood pressure over 6 y. This research underscores the importance of dietary sodium reduction in maintaining lower blood pressure.

DOI10.1016/j.ajcnut.2024.02.032
Alternate JournalAm J Clin Nutr
PubMed ID38432485
MS#: 
0523
Manuscript Lead/Corresponding Author Affiliation: 
Field Center: Miami (University of Miami)
ECI: 
Manuscript Affiliation: 
Field Center: Miami (University of Miami)
Manuscript Status: 
Published