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Diet quality, excess body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil and in the USA: differences and similarities.

TitleDiet quality, excess body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil and in the USA: differences and similarities.
Publication TypePublication
Year2021
AuthorsPereira JL, Mattei J, Isasi CR, Van Horn L, Carnethon MR, Daviglus ML, Perera MJ, Sotres-Alvarez D, Fisberg RM
JournalPublic Health Nutr
Volume24
Issue13
Pagination4091-4101
Date Published2021 Sep
ISSN1475-2727
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare diet quality and its association with excess body weight (EBW: overweight/obesity), central adiposity (CA) and CVD risk factors (CVDR) among adolescents from Brazil and USA.DESIGN: Data from two cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Nutrition) and Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL-Youth). Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h recalls, and diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI) developed in the USA and the Revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). CVDR was defined as ≥3 of: obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, high plasma glucose and insulin resistance. Adjusted OR for EBW, CA and CVDR by diet quality were tested using logistic regression.SETTING: São Paulo, Brazil; and Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; Bronx, NY; San Diego, CA.PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents (12-16 years) living in São Paulo (n 189) and USA (n 787).RESULTS: ISA-Nutrition individuals with EBW (v. without) had marginally lower (unhealthier) scores for whole grains using BHEI-R and sugary beverages using AHEI. SOL-Youth individuals with EBW had lower scores of nuts/legumes using AHEI, and Na using BHEI-R, but higher scores of whole grains and dairy using BHEI-R. In ISA-Nutrition, BHEI-R was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·87; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·95) and CVDR (OR = 0·89; 95 % CI 0·80, 0·98). In SOL-Youth, AHEI was inversely associated with EBW (OR = 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·99).CONCLUSIONS: Dietary improvements should be made by adolescents in both USA and Brazil. Healthier diet quality as measured with the country-specific index was associated with lower odds of EBW in Brazilian and USA-Hispanic/Latino adolescents, and with lower CVDR in Brazilian adolescents.

DOI10.1017/S1368980020002736
Alternate JournalPublic Health Nutr
PubMed ID32907665
MS#: 
0629
Manuscript Lead/Corresponding Author Affiliation: 
Affiliated Investigator - Not at HCHS/SOL site
ECI: 
Yes
Manuscript Affiliation: 
Field Center: Bronx (Einstein College of Medicine)
Manuscript Status: 
Published